Attention Deficit Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental condition that affects how an adult or child manages their focus, concentration levels of energy and drive. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders checklist, at least six of the following ADHD symptoms often apply:
Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.
Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behaviour or failure to understand instructions).
Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.
Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework).
Loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools).
Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.
Forgetful in daily activities.
At least six of the following signs of hyperactivity-impulsivity often apply:
FFidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.
Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.
Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness).
Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly.
Appears “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor.”
Blurts out the answers before the questions have been completed.
Has difficulty awaiting turn.
Interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).
Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] and at home). There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder, and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or a personality disorder).
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often known as Autism, are neuro-developmental conditions that are caused by some abnormalities in the brain. Children and adults with autism struggle with communication, social interaction and often have a range of intellectual ability. Some have severe learning difficulties while others may be very capable in academic settings. Asperger’s syndrome is used to describe individuals with higher functioning than others on the autism spectrum. Individuals with Asperger’s have no delays in leraning and speech and often have intense interests and hobbies. Signs of ASD change depending on age and developmental level and severity of their condition. Difficulties often change over time. Signs of ASD are often seen through three main areas:
Individuals with ASD have difficulty with verbal and non-verbal communication. Some individuals are unable to sustain social conversations and follow two way conversations.
Individuals with ASD do not fully understand the “social world”. They have trouble recognizing and understanding feelings and being empathic. They often spend time alone and may appear cold towards others.
Behaviours and interests
Individuals with ASD dislike change and tend to stick to routine. They often have unusual interests. They are more sensitive to environmental stimuli such as smells and textures and tastes. Children with ASD may have repetitive movements